Feline Diabetes Message Board Glossary ACROCAT / ACRO: A cat with acromegaly. ACROMEGALY: Disease caused by a growth-hormone-secreting pituitary tumor of the anterior pituitary. Uncontrolled diabetes is a common sign as well as enlargement of head, extremities (some cats). This tumor elevates the level of insulin-like growth factor (IGF), which inhibits the absorption of insulin, thus elevating the levels of glucose (BG) in the blood. In some instances, the tumor can be present in another organ of the cat’s body, such as the pancreas or liver. The amount of IGF being secreted may wax and wane, thus the resulting BG levels will also vary. ADIPOSE TISSUE: Fatty tissue. ADW: (American Diabetes Wholesale) Where many FDMBers buy their diabetic supplies. http://www.adwdiabetes.com/ AFAIK: As far as I know… AMPS: A.M. Preshot ANOREXIA: Loss of appetite BEANS: Our sugarcats’ unique word to describe us (“beings” as in human beings). BG: Blood Glucose (normal for a cat is between 70-120). For diabetic cats, the preferred range is between 100 (at peak) and 300. Note: SEE: "UNIT MEASUREMENT" BID: twice a day (refers to dosing schedule) BTW: By the way… BUN/Creatinine values: These are important blood values that reflect renal (kidney) function. CC: Cubic centimeter. Same as milliliter or ml. This is a term you will hear associated with some medications and subcutaneous fluid dosages. CIVILIAN: Non-diabetic cat. CKD: Chronic Kidney Disease CRF: Chronic Renal Failure (one of the most common causes of death in the geriatric kitty) CURVE: When a blood glucose curve is done to determine the cat’s reaction to the insulin/dosage, a blood glucose (BG) test is generally taken every 2 hours for a 12-hour period. The curve can also be a full 24-hour curve or a mini curve. +1: One hour post injection. +2: Two hours post injection. Etc. DH: Dear Husband DKA: Diabetic Ketoacidosis DX: Diagnosis DC: Diabetic cat DM: Purina DM – high protein diet for diabetic cats DOSAGE ABBREVIATIONS: b.i.d.: Twice daily s.i.d.: Once daily t.i.d.: Three times daily q.i.d.: Four times daily DROOLER: Our sugarcats’ word for dogs! ECID: “Every Cat is Different” EFA: Essential Fatty Acids. ENDOGENOUS: Used or made in the body. Insulin is an endogenous hormone. EUGLYCEMIA: Normal BG range. EXOGENOUS: Produced outside the body. Injected insulin is an exogenous product. FALLS: As in “Going to the Falls.” See “Honeymoon.” FDMB: Feline Diabetes Message Board (where you're at right now) FRUCTOSAMINE: This is a simple blood test that measures the average glycemic (glucose) control over a period of several weeks. GA: Guardian Angel or Gone Ahead (our kitties who have passed on to Rainbow Bridge) GLUCAGON: Pancreatic hormone made in the alpha cell that signals the liver to release glycogen as glucose to raise the BG. GLUCONEOGENESIS: Process of creating glucose from protein and glycerol. GLUCOSE: Sugar from digested food. Main body fuel. GLUCOSURIA: Glucose in the urine. GLYCEMIC: (adj.) Glucose; Glycemic Index: An index that measures the ability of a given food to elevate blood sugar. GLYCEROL: Part of fat. GLYCOGEN: Storage form of glucose. Main reservoir is located in the liver. GLYCOLYSIS: Ten step metabolic process which converts glucose to ATP used by the body for energy. GLYCOSYLATED HEMOGLOBIN: This measures the average glycemic control over approximately four months. “GOING TO THE FALLS”: This is a euphemism for a remission of the diabetes or “honeymoon.” HEMATURIA: Blood in the urine HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS: Fatty liver disease. This can occur in cats who become anorexic due to many causes (e.g., ketoacidosis) and is especially risky in overweight kitties. Because this potentially fatal disease can occur quickly, never allow your cat to go without eating for more than one day. HOCKS: The part of the cat’s back legs about halfway up (where the joint is) that comes into contact with the floor when kitty goes all the way down and thumps along. A cat with diabetic neuropathy will often walk on their “hocks.” HOME TESTING: This is home blood glucose (BG) testing as opposed to urine testing. Home testing is done with a blood glucose meter (Glucometer Elite, Accu-Check Advantage, FastTake, etc.) and "ear pricks" (or in some cases, paw pricks). To get the most detailed instructions, go to Hometesting Links and Tips. HONEYMOON: Many cats experience a period of time where they no longer need insulin. This treatment free period is referred to as the "honeymoon." Also referred to as “Going to the Falls.” h*n*ym**n*: Often used to denote “honeymoon” by those who don’t want to jinx the happy possibility by spelling out the whole word HYPERGLYCEMIA: High blood sugar HYPO: Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar - must be treated!) HYPOGLYCEMIC UNAWARENESS: Condition in which no visible signs of hypoglycemia are present even though the BG level is low. IBD: Inflammatory Bowel disease. IMHO: In My Humble Opinion. IMO: In My Opinion. IMOM (In Memory of Magic): This is an incredible non-profit organization established in 1998 by a diabetic cat owner who found the necessary information and support too late to save her beloved “Magic.” IMOM provides information, education, referral and financial aid to pets in need. One of IMOM’s special funds is the Diabetic Pet Fund. IMOM’s belief is that no pet should ever have to suffer or die due to lack of money. Please visit this truly wonderful place at: http://www.imom.org INSOLUBLE FIBER: Plant substance used to facilitate the passage of waste products through the digestive tract. INSULINOMA: Pancreatic tumor. INSULINS: These are the very basic types: Lantus, Levemir, Prozinc, PZI, Caninsulin/Vetsulin and NPH. Short acting: Humulin Regular; Hypurin Neutral (UK 100% beef version of our Regular) Medium acting: NPH, Caninsulin/Vetsulin Long acting: Lantus, Levemir, PZI, Prozinc KETOACIDOSIS: A dangerous and potentially fatal disease caused by an excess of ketones causing the blood to become acidic. When there is an insufficient amount of insulin to process the glucose, the body breaks down fat for energy. The by-product of this breakdown is the production of ketones which can quickly build up and become highly toxic. Ketones are eliminated in the urine and can be detected using special urine strips. KETOGENESIS: Process of creating ketones in the liver from fatty acids. KETONES: by-products produced when a cat burns fat for fuel instead of using glucose. If detected in the urine, the cat needs immediate treatment. KETONURIA: Ketones in the urine. KETOSTIX or KETODIASTIX: Test strips used to check your cat's urine for ketones. KIBBLE: Dry food. KIDNEY/RENAL THRESHOLD: The capacity of the kidney to retain substances such as glucose. Once reached the rest spill out into the urine stream. Glucose in diabetes will normally spill over at a BG around 230-280 (lab value) although it can vary. LOL: Laughing Out Loud. METHYLCOBALAMIN: A form of Vitamin B12 used to treat diabetic neuropathy (rear leg weakness). For more information, go to http://laurieulrich.com/jasper/ “MR. P.”: Slang for the Pancreas NADIR: The lowest point on a BG curve, often considered the same as the peak insulin reading. NEEDLE GAUGE: Needle thinness is measured in gauge size. The higher the gauge, the thinner the needle. NEUROPATHY (Diabetic Neuropathy, Peripheral Neuropathy, Hind Leg Weakness): Diabetic neuropathy can result when there is a failure to deliver glucose to the nerves resulting in free radicals which damage the nerve fibers. Many of our sugarcats with neuropathy have found relief with Methylcobalamin. NKOB: New Kitty On The Block NM: No Message OT: Off Topic PANCREATITIS: Inflammation of the pancreas, acute or chronic. P/D: Polydipsia – excessive thirst (drinking alot). PEAK: The time period when the insulin is strongest causing the BG level to be lowest. Will vary depending on the cat and duration of insulin used. Should not fall below 100 mg/dl or 5.5 mmol. PMPS: P.M. Preshot POLYPHAGIA: Increased consumption of food. POOTER: Our sugarcats’ word for computer. POPCORN: A glorious feline who in many hearts will eternally be “The Best Cat Ever.” Loyal and loving companion to Melissa, he fought a long and courageous battle with diabetes, CRF, and heart disease, giving inspiration to sugarcats everywhere. Born 8/87 and diagnosed with diabetes 2/98, Popcorn passed peacefully and beautifully to Rainbow Bridge on 10/25/01 where he hunts for lizards and continues to watch over us all. POST-PRANDIAL: Post meal PS: Pre-shot (as in pre-shot bgs, i.e. the blood glucose number right before injection) P/U: Polyuria - excessive urination (peeing a lot). PURINA DM: High protein diet for diabetic cats. PZI: Protamine Zinc Insulin. PZI is a long acting insulin widely accepted as an excellent choice for diabetic cats. RAINBOW BRIDGE: This is the place where our pets go when they pass on. They are restored to health and spend their days in the sun playing - waiting for the day when we will all be together again. To read about Rainbow Bridge, go to: http://www.petloss.com/ REGULATORY DURATION: The exact time spent in the regulatory 100-300 zone. ROTFLMAO: Rolling on the floor laughing my a** off. ROTFLOL: Rolling on the floor laughing out loud. SCIENCE DIET PRESCRIPTION FOODS (common): W/D canned: Science Diet’s Prescription food for weight loss, diabetes, and constipation. High fiber and low fat. 41% protein & 24.6% carbohydrates on a dry matter basis. R/D canned: Science Diet’s Prescription food for obesity, FLUDT (urinary tract disease), hyperlipidemia. High fiber and low fat. 36% protein & 31.8% carbohydrates on a dry matter basis. K/D canned: Science Diet’s Prescription food for CRF and mild to moderate cardiac disease. Low protein and low phosphorus. 29% protein & 35.8 carbohydrates on a dry matter basis. G/D canned: Science Diet’s Prescription food for renal insufficiency (pre-CRF) and mild cardiac disease. Low protein and low phosphorus. 35.1% protein & 37.2% carbohydrates on a dry matter basis. A/D canned: Science Diet’s Prescription food for debilitation, cachexia and anorexia, tube feeding. High fat, protein and phosphorus. 45.7% protein & 16.5% carbohydrates on a dry matter basis. SHOOT: To inject. SID: once a day (refers to dosing schedule) SLGS: Start Low, Go Slow SOLUBLE FIBER: Plant substance used to slow the digestive process. Dissolves in water. SOMOGYI: This is a term to describe the process in which the body reacts to low blood sugar or a rapid drop in blood sugar. When the body perceives a fast or low drop in glucose, it protects itself by releasing natural glucagons which raise the blood sugar. When this occurs, we call it somogyi or somogyi rebound, and this rebound or high blood glucose can last up to 72 hours. Treatment is to decrease the insulin dosage by 25-50%. SUBCUTANEOUS: Below the skin. SUBCUTANEOUS FLUIDS (Sub-Q, SQ): These are balanced fluids in an I.V. bag (Lactated Ringers Solution, etc.) and administered by inserting a needle under the cat’s skin in varying dosages. This treatment is commonly given at home for dehydrated cats or cats with renal failure. SUGARCATS: What all our diabetic kitties are! TID: three times a day (refers to dosing schedule) TR: Tight Regulation Type I - Diabetes Where the body produces no insulin, also called Insulin Dependent Diabetes Melitus (IDDM), or juvenile onset diabetes. Insulin is required with a Type I cat. Type I cats are more susceptible to ketoacidosis. Oral medications will not work with Type I cats. Estimates are about 40% of diagnosed cats are Type I diabetics. Type II - Diabetes Where the body still produces some insulin, but the insulin is unable to act properly to transfer blood glucose to the cells, also called NIDDM (Non IDDM). Type II diabetes can be mild, requiring only oral medications, to severe, requiring large amounts of insulin. Usually Type II is brought on by obesity in older cats, with high carb diets also suspected as a risk factor. Some cats progress from Type II to Type I as the diabetes progresses. About 60% of diabetic cats are Type II. UNIT: This is the term we use to measure our insulin dosage: U100 insulin has 100 units of insulin per milliliter of fluid. U100 vials contain 10ml of fluids. U40 insulin has 40 units of insulin per milliliter of fluid. U50 insulin has 50 units of insulin per ml of fluid. Syringes used must match the insulin given (i.e., U100 syringes are used for U100 insulin). U40 & U50 insulins can be given in the smaller U100 syringes, but a conversion must first be made. UNIT MEASUREMENT: When using a U100 syringe each regular marking or line represents one unit. If your syringe has ½ unit markings as well (the shorter in-between lines), each of these represent ½ unit. U.S./Canadian, UK, Australian BG conversion: To convert mmol/L to mg/dl (of glucose), multiply by 18. To convert mg/dl to mmol/L (of glucose), divide by 18 or multiply by 0.055. There’s an excellent conversion chart here: Blood Glucose Converter Calculator (1 mmol/L = 18 mg/dL) UTI: Urinary tract infection The FelineDiabetes.com community owes a great debt to long-time FDMB user Melissa&Popcorn(GA) for her hard work in creating and maintaining the first FDMB glossary.